Subject for Civil Engineer
Fluid mechanics is that branch of science which deals with the behaviour of the fluids (liquids or gases) at rest as well as in motion. Thus this branch of science deals with the static (स्थिर), kinematics and dynamic (गतिशील) aspects of fluids. The study of fluids at rest is called fluid statics. The study of fluids in motion, where pressure forces are not considered, is called fluid kinematics and if the pressure forces are also considered for the fluids in motion, that branch of science is called fluid dynamics.
Surveying may be defined as an art to determine the relative positions of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth, with respect to each other, by measurements of horizontal and vertical distances, angles and directions. Surveying may also be defined as the science of determining the position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features on, above or beneath the surface of the earth. The land form and its features may then be represented in analog form as a contour map, plan, or chart, or in digital form as a three-dimensional mathematical model.
Artificial application of water to the soil for raising crops is known as irrigation. It is a science which pertains to the planning, designing, controlling and maintenance of irrigation works so that available water resources may be used in the best possible manner. Irrigation works involve construction of dams, reservoirs, canals, headworks, cross-drainage works, river training works etc. Methods of application of water to crops, measures to prevent water logging and generation of hydroelectric power also come under the purview of irrigation.
Some terms like ‘highways’, ‘roads’, ‘streets’ and ‘expressways’ have precise meanings, though they are often used loosely in practice, A ‘highway’ is an arterial road facility designed for high speed and high volume traffic in the non-urban areas. For example, the national road network of a country is called the National Highway Network.
A ‘road’ is a lower order facility, designed for relatively lower speed and lower volume of traffic in the non-urban areas. For example, they can be district roads or village roads. A ‘street’is an urban road facility.
An Expressway or Express Highway is a superior type of highway facility with full or partial control of access, generally a divided carriageway and catering to very high speeds.
Environmental engineering is the branch of engineering that is concerned with protecting people from the effects of adverse environmental effects, such as pollution, as well as improving environmental quality. Environmental engineers work to improve recycling, waste disposal, public health, and water and air pollution control, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Soil engineering, Soil Mechanics or Geotechnique is one of the youngest disciplines of civil engineering involving the study of soil, its behaviour and application as an engineering material. According to Terzaghi (1948) : ‘Soil Mechanics is the application of laws of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with sediments and other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles produced by the mechanical and chemical disintegration of rocks regardless of whether or not they contain an admixture of organic constituent’. The term Soil Engineering is currently used to cover a much wider scope implying that it is a practical science rather than a purely fundamental or mathematical one. The term Foundation Engineering is a branch of civil engineering, which is associated with the design, construction, maintenance, and renovation of footings, foundation walls, pile foundations, caissons, and all other structural members which form the foundations of buildings and other engineering structures
The building design has traditionally been the responsibility of the architect, though the building construction has been the responsibility of the civil engineer. Also, the structural designs of the building are the responsibility of a civil engineer. On small projects, a civil engineer may sometimes be entrusted with the architectural design work, along with structural designs
• An estimate can be defined as ‘the procedure or method of working out the probable cost of a work’. An estimate is prepared by working out the quantities and then calculating the cost at suitable rates.
• Before the construction work of any structure is started, calculation of quantities of various items of work and its probable cost is done. This is known as estimating. Before starting any civil engineering work or project, it is necessary to know its approximate cost by calculating quantity of various items and multiplying it by unit rates of materials.
• As far as estimating is concerned, it is done by studying and analysis of drawing and specification. Estimate of a work is governed by quantity and quality aspect. Quantity is related with drawings and quality is related with specifications of materials and workmanship.