Chemestry 11th & 12th

XI

Unit I : Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (8 Periods)

General Introduction : Importance and scope of chemistry. Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory : concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.


Unit II : Structure of Atom (10 Periods)

Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.


Unit III : Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties (06 Periods)

Modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.


Unit IV : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (14 Periods)

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.


Unit V : States of Matter : Gases, Liquids and Solids (18 Periods)

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea). Liquid state : Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations). Solid state : Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.


Unit VI : Chemical Thermodynamics (16 Periods)

Concepts of systems and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ∆U and ∆H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of thermodynamics (brief introduction). Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non- spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).


Unit VII: Equilibrium (14 Periods)

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH. Henderson equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).


Unit VIII : Redox Reactions (06 Periods)

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.


Unit IX : Hydrogen (08 Periods)

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X : s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) (10 Periods)

Group 1 and Group 2 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses. Preparation and properties of some important compounds : Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of magnesium and calcium.


Unit XI : p-Block Elements (18 Periods)

General Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 Elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, borax, boric acids, boron hydrides, Aluminium : Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses. Group 14 Elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: Silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites their uses. Group 15 Elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen-preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); phosphorus-allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: Preparation and properties of phosphine, halides and oxoacids (elementary idea only).


Unit XII : Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques (14 Periods)

General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond : inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper-conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond : free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.


Unit XIII : Hydrocarbons (12 Periods)

Classification of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Alkanes –

Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes –

Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions : addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes –

Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions : acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons –

Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene : resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties, mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of a functional group in mono-substituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.


Unit XIV : Environmental Chemistry (06 Periods) Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.


XII

Unit I : Solid State

(Periods 10)

•Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional

and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms perunitcellinacubicunitcell,pointdefects,electricalandmagneticproperties. Bandtheoryofmetals,conductors,semiconductorsandinsulators,and n -and p

-typesemiconductors


Unit II : Solutions (Periods 10)

•Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.


Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 12)

Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, relation between Gibb's energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.


Unit IV : Chemical Kinetics (Periods 10)

•Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment) Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.


Unit V : Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)

•Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis, homogeneous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity, enzyme catalysis, colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.


Unit VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8)

•Principles and methods of extraction–concentration, oxidation, reduction : electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.


Unit VII : Some p -Block Elements (Periods 12)

•Group 15 elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus–allotropic forms; compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of phosphine , halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).

•Group 16 elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, Dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; Ozone. Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

•Group 17 elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

•Group 18 elements :

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.


Unit VIII : d and f -Block Elements (Periods 12)

•General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K Cr O and KMnO .

•Lanthanoids –

Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

•Actinoids –

Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.


Unit IX : Coordination Compounds (Periods 12)

•Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner's theory, VBT, CFT, structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).


Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (Periods 10)

•Haloalkanes:

Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.

•Haloarenes:

Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).


Uses and environmental effects of dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

2 2 7 4


Unit XI : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 10)

•Alcohols :

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

•Phenols :

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

•Ethers :

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.


Unit XII : Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids (Periods 10)

•Aldehydes and Ketones :

Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses. Carboxylic acids :

Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.


UnitXIII: OrganicCompoundsContainingNitrogen (Periods10)

•Amines :

Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

•Cyanides and Isocyanides-

will be mentioned at relevant places in text.

•Diazonium salts :

Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.


Unit XIV : Biomolecules (Periods 12)

•Carbohydrates –

Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D - L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance of carbohydrates.

•Proteins

– Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes, Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.

•Vitamins

– Classification and functions.

•Nucleic Acids:

DNAandRNA.


Unit XV : Polymers (Periods 8)

•Classification – Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber; Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers. UnitXVI: ChemistryinEverydayLife (Periods6)

Chemicals in medicines –

analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. Chemicals in food –

preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of anti - oxidants. Cleansing agents –

soaps and detergents, cleansing action.


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