DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM

DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM

  • IT SHALL CONSIST OF MINERAL AGGREGATE AND APPROPRIATE BINDER, MIXED IN A HOT MIX PLANT AND LAID WITH A MECHANIZED PAVER.

  • IT IS LAID IN A SINGLE COURSE OR IN MULTIPLE LAYERS ON A PREVIOUSLY PREPARED BASE.

  • THE THICKNESS OF THE SINGLE LAYER SHALL BE 50 MM TO 100 MM.

BITUMINOUS CONCRETE



MATERIALS USED IN BITUMINOUS CONCRETE:-

  • BITUMEN


HYDRATED LIME



COARSE AGGREGATE



FINE AGGREGATE



MATERIALS

1. BITUMEN

  • THE BITUMEN SHALL BE VISCOSITY GRADED PAVING BITUMEN COMPLYING WITH INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR PAVING BITUMEN, IS:73.

  • THE GRADE OF BITUMEN TO BE USED WOULD DEPEND UPON THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND THE TRAFFIC.


SELECTION CRITERIA BASED ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS


VISCOSITY GRADED BITUMEN AND THEIR GENERAL APPLICATIONS



2. COARSE AGGREGATES

  • THE COARSE AGGREGATE SHALL CONSIST OF CRUSHED ROCK, CRUSHED GRAVEL, OR OTHER GRAVEL OR OTHER HARD MATERIAL RETAINEDON2.36MM SIEVE.

  • IT SHALL BE CLEAN, HARD, DURABLE, AND CUBICAL IN SHAPE, FREE FROM DUST AND SOFT ORGANIC AND OTHER DELETERIOUS SUBSTANCES.

  • WHERE CRUSHED GRAVEL IS PROPOSED FOR USE AS AGGREGATE NOT LESS THAN 90% BY WEIGHT OF THE CRUSHED MATERIAL RETAINED ON THE 4.75MM SIEVE SHALLHAVEAT LEAST TWOFRACTURE FACES,EXCEPT THAT IN CASE OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE THE REQUIREMENT IN THIS REGARD SHALL BE 95%

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE



  • IF THE MIN. RETAINED TENSILE TEST STRENGTH FALLS BELOW 80%, USE OF AN ANTI-STRIPPING AGENT IS RECOMMENDED TO MEET THE REQUIREMENT.

  • IMPROVE THE ADHESION OF THE BITUMEN FILM ON THE SURFACE OF THE AGGREGATES. MIXED WITH THE BINDER, THEY LOWER THE SURFACE TENSION OF THE BITUMEN.


3. FINE AGGREGATES

  • IT SHALL CONSIST OF CRUSHED OR NATURALLY OCCURRING MATERIAL, OR A COMBINATION OF THE TWO, PASSING 2.36 MM SIEVE AND RETAINED ON THE 75MICRON SIEVE.

  • THEY SHALL BE CLEAN, HARD, DURABLE, DRY, AND FREE FROM DUST AND SOFT OR FRIABLE MATTER, ORGANIC OR OTHER DELETERIOUS MATTER.

NOTES:-

  • NATURAL SAND SHALL NOT BE ALLOWED IN THE BINDER COURSE.

  • HOWEVER, NATURAL SAND UP TO 50% OF THE FINE AGGREGATES MAY BE ALLOWED IN BASE COURSES.

  • SAND EQUIVALENT VALUE >50 {IS:2720(PART 37)}

  • THE PLASTICITY INDEX OF THE FRACTION PASSING THE 0.425MM SIEVE<4 {IS:2720(PART 5)}.

3. FILLER:-

  • THE FILLER SHALL CONSIST OF FINELY DIVIDE MINERAL MATTER SUCH AS ROCK DUST, HYDRATED LIME, OR CEMENT APPROVED BY THE ENGINEER.

  • THE FILLER SHALL BE GRADED WITHIN THE LIMITS INDICATED IN THE TABLE BELOW:-

NOTES:-

  • THE FILLER SHALL BE FREE FROM ORGANIC IMPURITIES.

  • PLASTICITY INDEX NOT GREATER THAN 4

  • THE PI REQUIREMENTS SHALL NOT APPLY IF THE FILLER IS CEMENT OR LIME.

  • WHERE THE AGGREGATES FAIL TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE WATER SENSITIVITY TEST THEN 2% BY WEIGHT OF AGGREGATES, OF HYDRATED LIME SHALL BE USED.

AGGREGATE GRADING & BINDER CONTENT

  • WHEN TESTED BY THE WET SIEVING METHOD THE COMBINED GRADINGOFTHE COURSEAGGREGATES, FINE AGGREGATES & FILLER FOR THE PARTICULAR MIXTURE SHALL FALL WITHIN THE LIMITS GIVEN IN THE TABLE AS SPECIFIED IN THE CONTRACT





AGGREGATE GRADING & BINDER CONTENT SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR GRADING I & II



MIX DESIGN BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

  • THE BITUMEN CONTENT REQUIRED SHALL BE DETERMINED BY FOLLOWING THE MARSHALL MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE

  • THE FINES TO BITUMEN(F/B)RATIOBY WEIGHT OF TOTAL MIX SHALLRANGE FROM 0.6 TO 1.2.



REQUIREMENTS OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE



BINDER CONTENT

  • THE BINDER CONTENT SHALL BE SELECTED TO OBTAIN 4 PERCENT AIR VOIDS IN THE MIX DESIGN.

  • WHEREMAXIMUMSIZE OF THE AGGREGATE IS MORE THAN26.5 MM, THE MODIFIED MARSHALL METHOD USING 150 MM DIAMETER SPECIMEN SHALL BE USED.

  • THIS METHOD REQUIRES MODIFIED EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES.

  • WHEN THE MODIFIEDMARSHALL TEST IS USED, THE SPECIFIED MINIMUM STABILITY VALUE SHALL BE MULTIPLIED BY 2.25, AND THE MINIMUM FLOW SHALL BE 3 MM.

MIN.%AGE VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREGATES



PERMISSIBLEVARIATIONINTHEACTUAL MIX




LAYING


WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMITATIONS: BITUMINOUS MACADAM SHALL NOT BE LAID:

  • IN THE PRESENCE OF STANDING WATER ON THE SURFACE,

  • WHEN RAIN IS IMMINENT AND DURING RAINS, FOG, OR DUST STORMS,

  • WHEN THE BASE /BINDER COURSE IS DAMP,

  • WHEN THE AIR TEMPERATURE ON THE SURFACE ON WHICH IT IS TO BE LAID IS LESS THAN 100 C,

  • WHEN THE WIND SPEED AT ANY TEMPERATURE EXCEEDS 40 KM/H AT A 2-METER HEIGHT.

PREPARATION OF THE BASE:

BASE SHALL BE PREPARED BY CARRYING OUT ALL FOLLOWING OPERATIONS, DEPENDING UPON THE SITE CONDITIONS:-

  • CLEANING OF THE SURFACE: BY MECHANICAL BROOM, HIGH-PRESSURE AIR JET RECEIVED FROM A COMPRESSOR, OR ANY OTHER APPROVED EQUIPMENT / METHOD.

  • FILLING UP OF POTHOLES AND SEALING OF CRACKS: ANY POTHOLES AND /OR CRACKS SHALL BE REPAIRED AND SEALED.

PRIME COAT OVER WMM:-

  • IT IS AN APPLICATION OF LOW VISCOUS BITUMEN OVER A GRANULAR BASE LIKE GSB AND WMM, DEVELOPING IT FOR LAYING AN ASPHALT MIX LIKE DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM ON IT.

  • THE BITUMINOUS EMULSION MATERIAL TO BE USED AS THE PRIME COAT SHALL BE SUCH THAT IT CAN PENETRATE ABOUT TEN MILLIMETRES DEEP INTO THE BASE COURSE.



LAYING RATE OF SPRAY(SS1 GRADE BITUMEN) ON VARIOUS TYPES OF SURFACES


LAYING CUT-BACK FOR PRIMER


  • THE CORRECT QUANTITY OF PRIMER SHALL BE DECIDED BY ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE

  • IT SHALL BE ABSORBED BY THE SURFACE WITHOUT CAUSING EXCESSIVE RUN-OFF OF PRIMER & TO ACHIEVE DESIRED PENETRATION OF 8-10MM.


CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS FOR PRIME COAT EQUIPMENT:-

  • SELF-PROPELLED OR TOWED BITUMEN PRESSURE SPRAYER EQUIPPED FOR SPRAYING THE MATERIALUNIFORMLYAT SPECIFIED RATE& TEMPERATURE.

  • HAND SPRAYING SHALL NOT BE ALLOWED EXCEPT IN SMALL AREAS ACCESSIBLE TO THE DISTRIBUTOR.




PREPARATION OF ROAD SURFACE:-

  • THE SURFACE TO BE PRIMED SHALL BE KEPT CLEAN BY A POWER OR MECHANICAL SWEEPER & MADE FREE FROM DUST.


APPLICATIONS OF BITUMINOUS PRIMER:-

# IT DEPENDS UPON THE

  • TYPE OF EQUIPMENT USED

  • SIZE OF NOZZLE

  • PRESSUREATSPRAYBARS

  • SPEED OF FORWARDING MOVEMENT

  • NO HEATING OR DILUTION OF RS1 BITUMEN EMULSION & SHALL BE PERMITTED AT SITE

  • THE SPRAYING TEMPERATURE SHALL BE BETWEEN 30 TO 55 DEGREES CELSIUS.

  • TRAYTEST SHALL BE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE RATE OF SPREAD OF THE BINDER.

RATE OF APPLICATION OF TACK COAT

CONSTRUCTION CURING OF PRIMER:-

  • IT SHALL BE ALLOWED TO CURE FOR AT LEAST 24 HOURS.

  • AN UNABSORBED PRIMER SHALL FIRST BE BLOTTED WITH A LIGHT APPLICATION OF SAND USING THE MINIMUM QUANTITY POSSIBLE

  • THE PRIMED SURFACE SHALL NOT BE OPEN TO TRAFFIC OTHER THAN THAT NECESSARY TO LAY THE NEXT COURSE.

QUALITY CONTROL AND TEST FREQUENCY FOR PRIME COAT

MEASUREMENTS FOR PAYMENT:-

TACK COAT SHALL BE MEASURED IN TERMS OF SURFACE AREA OF APPLICATION IN SQUARE METER


LAYING


TACK COAT :-


  • IT IS A VERY THIN APPLICATION OF DILUTED BITUMEN EMULSION.

  • IT CONSISTS OF THE LOW VISCOSITY OF BITUMINOUS MATERIAL TO EXISTING BITUMINOUS, CEMENT CONCRETE OR PRIME GRANULAR SURFACE.

  • IT IS USED TO ASSURE A BOND BETWEEN A PAVED SURFACE AND THE NEW COURSE.


MATERIALS:-

  • THEBINDERUSED ARE:-

  • CATIONIC BITUMEN EMULSION (RS-1)

  • LOW VISCOSITY PAVING BITUMEN (VG-10)

  • CUT-BACKBITUMEN (RC-70) – ONLYFORSITES ATSUB-ZERO TEMP. OR AS DIRECTED BY AN ENGINEER




CONSTRUCTION OPEARATION FOR TACK COAT

EQUIPMENTS:-

  • SELF-PROPELLED OR TOWED BITUMEN PRESSURE SPRAYER EQUIPPED FOR SPRAYING THE MATERIAL UNIFORMLY AT A SPECIFIED RATE & TEMPERATURE.

  • HAND SPRAYING SHALL NOT BE ALLOWED EXCEPT IN SMALL ARE AS INACCESSIBLE TO THE DISTRIBUTOR.



PREPARATION OF ROAD SURFACE:-

  • THE SURFACE TO BE PRIMED SHALL BE KEPT CLEAN BY POWER OR MECHANICALSWEEPER& MADE FREE FROM DUST.



APPLICATIONS OF BITUMINOUS PRIMER:-

# IT DEPENDS UPON THE

  • TYPE OF EQUIPMENT USED

  • SIZE OF NOZZLE

  • PRESSUREATSPRAYBARS

  • SPEED OF FORWARDING MOVEMENT

  • NO HEATING OR DILUTION OF RS1 BITUMEN EMULSION & SHALL BE PERMITTED AT SITE

# SPRAYING TEMPERATURE:-

  • BITUMINOUS EMULSION – 20-70°C

  • CUTBACK – 50-80°C

  • RATE OF APPLICATION OF TACK COAT

RATE OF APPLICATION OFTACKCOAT

CURING:-

  • TACK COAT SHALL BE LEFT TO CURE UNTIL ALL VOLATILES HAVE EVAPORATED DBEFOREANY SUBSEQUENT CONSTRUCTION IS STARTED.

  • NO VEHICLE IS ALLOWED ON THE TACK COAT OTHER THAN THOSE ESSENTIAL FOR CONSTRUCTION.

QUALITY CONTROL AND TEST FREQUENCY FOR TACK COAT

MEASUREMENTS FOR PAYMENT:-

  • TACK COAT SHALL BE MEASURED IN TERMS OF SURFACE AREA OF APPLICATION IN SQUARE METERS.

MIXING & TRANSPORTATION OF MIX

MIXING, LAYING, AND ROLLING TEMPERATURES FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE


SPREADING:-

  • EXCEPT IN AREAS WHERE PAVER CAN NOT HAVE ACCESS, BITUMINOUS MIXTURE SHALL BE SPREAD, LEVELLED, AND TAMPED BY A SELF-PROPELLED HYDROSTATIC PAVER FINISHER PREFERABLY EQUIPPED WITH A SENSOR.



  • AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER ARRIVAL AT THE SITE THE ASPHALT MIX SHALL BE SUPPLIED CONTINUOUSLY TO THE PAVER AND LAID WITHOUT DELAY.

  • THE RATE OF DELIVERY OF MATERIAL TO THE PAVER SHALL BE REGULATED TO ENABLE THE PAVER TO OPERATE CONTINUOUSLY.

  • THE TRAVEL RATE OF PAVER AND THE METHOD OF OPERATION SHALL BE ADJUSTED TOENSUREEVEN AND UNIFORM FLOW OF BITUMINOUS MATERIAL ACROSS THE SCREED, FREE FROM DRAGGING, TEARING, AND SEGREGATION

  • WHEN LAYING BITUMINOUS CONCRETE NEAR THE EXPANSION JOINT, THE MACHINE LAYING SHALL BE STOPPED ABOUT 300 MM SHORT OF THE JOINT.

  • THE REMAINDER OF THE PAVEMENT UP TO THE JOINT AND THE CORRESPONDING AREA BEYOND IT SHALL BE LAID MANUALLY.



COMPACTION:-

  • THE INITIAL OR BREAKDOWN ROLLING SHALL BE DONE WITH AN 8 TO 10 TONNES DEAD WEIGHT SMOOTH WHEEL ROLLER THE INTERMEDIATE ROLLING SHALL BE DONE WITH 8 TO 10 TONNES DEAD WEIGHT OR VIBRATORY ROLLER WITH AN AMPLITUDE OF 0.3MM TO 0.8 MM AND FREQUENCY BETWEEN 30 TO 50 HZ. OR WITH A PNEUMATIC ROLLER OF 12 TO 15 TONES, WITH A TIRE PRESSURE OF AT LEAST 0.56 MPA.

  • THE FINISHED ROLLING SHALL BE DONE WITH 6 TO 8 TONNES SMOOTH WHEEL ROLLER.

  • ROLLING SHALL CONTINUE UNTIL AT LEAST 98% OF THE LAB DENSITY OBTAINED IN THE MARSHALL MOULD MADE USING APPROVED GRADATIONANDBITUMENCONTENTISACHIEVED


NOTES:-

  • THE BC SHALL BE ROLLED IN THE LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION WITH THE ROLLER AS CLOSE TO THE PAVE AS POSSIBLE.

  • THE OVERLAP ON SUCCESSIVE PASSES SHOULD BE AT LEAST ONE-THIRD OF THE WIDTH OF THE REAR ROLL OR IN THE CASE OF PNEUMATIC WHEELED ROLLERS, AT LEAST THE NOMINAL WIDTH OF 300MM.

  • THE ROLLER SHOULD MOVE AT A SPEED OF NO MORE THAN5 KM/HOUR. THE ROLLER SHALL NOT BE PERMITTED TO STAND ON PAVEMENT, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN FULLY COMPACTED

MEASUREMENTS FOR PAYMENT:-

  • BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SHALL BE MEASURED AS FINISHED WORK EITHER IN CUBIC METRES, TONNES OR BY SQUARE METER AT A SPECIFIED THICKNESS AS INDICATED IN THE DRAWING, CONTRACT, DOCUMENTS OR AS SPECIFIED BY THE ENGINEER-IN CHARGE.



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