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# Physics 11th & 12th

Updated: Jul 24, 2020

1.Introduction to Physics

1.1 What Is Physics ?

1.2 Physics and Mathematics

1.3 Units

1.4 Definitions of Base Units

1.5 Dimension

1.6 Uses of Dimension

1.7 Order of Magnitude

1.8 The Structure of World

2.Physics and Mathematics

2.1 Vectors and Scalars

2.2 Equality of Vectors

2.4 Multiplication of a Vector by a Number

2.5 Subtraction of Vectors

2.6 Resolution of Vectors

2.7 Dot Product or Scalar Proudct of Two Vectors

2.8 Cross Product or Vector Product of Two Vectors

2.9 Differential Calculus :dy/dx as Rate Measurer

2.10 Maxima and Minima

2.11 Integral Calculus

2.12 Significant Digits

2.13 Significant Digits in Calculations

2.14 Errors in Measurement

3.Rest and Motion : Kinematics

3.1 Rest and Motion

3.2 Distance and Displacement

3.3 Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed

3.4 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity

3.5 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration

3.6 Motion in a Straight Line

3.7 Motion in a Plane

3.8 Projectile Motion

3.9 Change of Frame

4.The Forces

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Gravitational Force

4.3 Electromagnetic (EM) Force

4.4 Nuclear Forces

4.5 Weak Forces

4.6 Scope of Classical Physics

5.Newton’s Laws of Motion

5.1 First Law of Motion

5.2 Second Law of Motion

5.3 Working with Newton’s First and Second Law

5.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

5.5 Pseudo Forces

5.6 The Horse and the Cart

5.7 Inertia

6.Friction

6.1 Friction as the Component of Contact Force

6.2 Kinetic Friction

6.3 Static Friction

6.4 Laws of Friction

6.5 Understanding Friction at Atomic Level

6.6 A Laboratory Method to Measure

7.Circular Motion

7.1 Angular Variables

7.2 Unit Vectors along the Radius and the Tangent

7.3 Acceleration in Circular Motion

7.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion

7.5 Circular Turnings and Banking of Roads

7.6 Centrifugal Force

7.7 Effect of Earth’s Rotation on Apparent Weight

8.Work and Energy

8.1 Kinetic Energy

8.2 Work and Work-energy Theorem

8.3 Calculation of Work Done

8.4 Work-energy Theorem for a System of Particles

8.5 Potential Energy

8.6 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

8.7 Definition of Potential Energy and

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

8.8 Change in the Potential Energy

in a Rigid-body-motion

8.9 Gravitational Potential Energy

8.10 Potential Energy of a Compressed or

Extended Spring

8.11 Different Forms of Energy : Mass Energy

9.Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision

9.1 Centre of Mass

9.2 Centre of Mass of Continuous Bodies

9.3 Motion of the Centre of Mass

9.4 Linear Momentum and its Conservation Principle

9.5 Rocket Propulsion

9.6 Collision

9.7 Elastic Collision in One Dimension

9.8 Perfectly Inelastic Collision in One Dimension

9.9 Coefficient of Restitution

9.10 Elastic Collision in Two Dimensions

9.11 Impulse and Impulsive Force

10.Rotational Mechanics

10.1 Rotation of a Rigid Body

10.2 Kinematics

10.3 Rotational Dynamics

10.4 Torque of a Force about the Axis of Rotation

10.5 Γ = Iα

10.6 Bodies in Equilibrium

10.7 Bending of a Cyclist on a Horizontal Turn

10.8 Angular Momentum

10.9 L = Iω

10.10 Conservation of Angular Momentum

10.11 Angular Impulse

10.12 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body

10.13 Power Delivered and Work Done by a Torque

10.14 Calculation of Moment of Inertia

10.15 Two Important Theorems on Moment of Inertia

10.16 Combined Rotation and Translation

10.17 Rolling

10.18 Kinetic Energy of a Body in Combined

Rotation and Translation

10.19 Angular Momentum of a Body

in Combined Rotation and Translation

10.20 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down ?

11.Gravitation

11.1 Historical Introduction

11.2 Measurement of Gravitational Constant G

11.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

11.4 Gravitational Potential

11.5 Calculation of Gravitational Potential

11.6 Gravitational Field

11.7 Relation between Gravitational Field and Potential

11.8 Calculation of Gravitational Field

11.9 Variation in the Value of g

11.10 Planets and Satellites

11.11 Kepler’s Laws

11.12 Weightlessness in a Satellite

11.13 Escape Velocity

11.14 Gravitational Binding Energy

11.15 Black Holes 218

11.16 Inertial and Gravitational Mass

11.17 Possible Changes in the Law of Gravitation

12.Simple Harmonic Motion

12.1 Simple Harmonic Motion

12.2 Qualitative Nature of Simple Harmonic Motion

12.3 Equation of Motion of a Simple Harmonic Motion

12.4 Terms Associated with Simple Harmonic Motion

12.5 Simple Harmonic Motion as a

Projection of Circular Motion

12.6 Energy Conservation in Simple Harmonic Motion

12.7 Angular Simple Harmonic Motion

12.8 Simple Pendulum

12.9 Physical Pendulum

12.10 Torsional Pendulum

12.11 Composition of Two Simple Harmonic Motions

12.12 Damped Harmonic Motion

12.13 Forced Oscillation and Resonance

13.Fluid Mechanics

13.1 Fluids

13.2 Pressure in a Fluid

13.3 Pascal’s Law

13.4 Atmospheric Pressure and Barometer

13.5 Archimedes’ Principle

13.6 Pressure Difference and Buoyant

Force in Accelerating Fluids

13.7 Flow of Fluids

13.9 Irrotational Flow of an

Incompressible and Nonviscous Fluid

13.10 Equation of Continuity

13.11 Bernoulli’s Equation

13.12 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

14.Some Mechanical Properties of Matter

14.1 Molecular Structure of a Material

14.2 Elasticity

14.3 Stress

14.4 Strain

14.5 Hooke’s Law and the Modulii of Elasticity

14.6 Relation between Longitudinal Stress and Strain

14.7 Elastic Potential Energy of a Strained Body

14.8 Determination of Young’s Modulus in Laboratory

14.9 Surface Tension

14.10 Surface Energy

14.11 Excess Pressure Inside a Drop

14.12 Excess Pressure in a Soap Bubble

14.13 Contact Angle

14.14 Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube

14.15 Viscosity

14.16 Flow through a Narrow Tube : Poiseuille’s

Equation

14.17 Stokes’ Law

14.18 Terminal Velocity

14.19 Measuring Coefficient of Viscosity

by Stokes’ Method

14.20 Critical Velocity and Reynolds Number

15.Wave Motion and Waves on a String

15.1 Wave Motion

15.2 Wave Pulse on a String

15.3 Sine Wave Travelling on a String

15.4 Velocity of a Wave on a String

15.5 Power Transmitted along the String

by a Sine Wave

15.6 Interference and the Principle of Superposition

15.7 Interference of Waves Going in Same Direction

15.8 Reflection and Transmission of Waves

15.9 Standing Waves

15.10 Standing Waves on a String Fixed

at Both Ends (Qualitative Discussion)

15.11 Analytic Treatment of Vibration

of a String Fixed at Both Ends

15.12 Vibration of a String Fixed at One End

15.13 Laws of Transverse Vibrations of a

String : Sonometer

15.14 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

15.15 Polarization of Waves

16.Sound Waves

16.1 The Nature and Propagation of Sound Waves

16.2 Displacement Wave and Pressure Wave

16.3 Speed of a Sound Wave in a Material Medium

16.4 Speed of Sound in a Gas : Newton’s

Formula and Laplace’s Correction

16.5 Effect of Pressure, Temperature and

Humidity on the Speed of Sound in Air

16.6 Intensity of Sound Waves

16.7 Appearance of Sound to Human Ear

16.8 Interference of Sound Waves

16.9 Standing Longitudinal Waves

and Vibrations of Air Columns

16.10 Determination of Speed of Sound in Air

16.11 Beats

16.12 Diffraction

16.13 Doppler Effect

16.14 Sonic Booms

16.15 Musical Scale

16.16 Acoustics of Buildings

17.Light Waves

17.1 Waves or Particles

17.2 The Nature of Light Waves

17.3 Huygens’ Principle

17.4 Young’s Double Hole Experiment

17.5 Young’s Double Slit Experiment

17.6 Optical Path

17.7 Interference from Thin Films

17.8 Fresnel’s Biprism

17.9 Coherent and Incoherent Sources

17.10 Diffraction of Light

17.11 Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Single Slit

17.12 Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Circular Aperture

17.13 Fresnel Diffraction at a Straight Edge

17.14 Limit of Resolution

17.15 Scattering of Light

17.16 Polarization of Light

18.Geometrical Optics

18.1 Reflection at Smooth Surfaces

18.2 Spherical Mirrors

18.3 Relation Between u, v and R for Spherical Mirrors

18.4 Extended Objects and Magnification

18.5 Refraction at Plane Surfaces

18.6 Critical Angle

18.7 Optical Fibre

18.8 Prism

18.9 Refraction at Spherical Surfaces

18.10 Extended Objects : Lateral Magnification

18.11 Refraction through Thin Lenses

18.12 Lens Maker’s Formula and Lens Formula

18.13 Extended Objects : Lateral Magnification

18.14 Power of a Lens

18.15 Thin Lenses in Contact

18.16 Two Thin Lenses Separated By a Distance

18.17 Defects of Images

19.Optical Instruments

19.1 The Eye

19.2 The Apparent Size

19.3 Simple Microscope

19.4 Compound Microscope

19.5 Telescopes

19.6 Resolving Power of a Microscope and a Telescope

19.7 Defects of Vision

20.Dispersion and Spectra

20.1 Dispersion

20.2 Dispersive Power

20.3 Dispersion without Average Deviation

and Average Deviation without Dispersion

20.4 Spectrum

20.5 Kinds of Spectra

20.6 Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectrum

20.7 Spectrometer

20.8 Rainbow

21.Speed of Light

21.1 Historical Introduction

21.2 Fizeau Method

21.3 Foucault Method

21.4 Michelson Method

22.Photometry

22.3 Luminous Flux : Relative Luminosity

22.4 Luminous Efficiency

22.5 Luminous Intensity or Illuminating Power

22.6 Illuminance

22.7 Inverse Square Law

22.8 Lambert’s Cosine Law

22.9 Photometers

23.Heat and Temperature

23.1 Hot and Cold Bodies

23.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

23.3 Defining Scale of Temperature : Mercury

and Resistance Thermometers

23.4 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

23.5 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale

23.6 Celsius Temperature Scale

23.7 Ideal Gas Equation

23.8 Callender’s Compensated Constant

Pressure Thermometer

23.10 Thermal Expansion

24.Kinetic Theory of Gases

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases

24.3 Calculation of the Pressure of an Ideal Gas

24.4 rms Speed

24.5 Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature

24.6 Deductions from Kinetic Theory

24.7 Ideal Gas Equation

24.8 Maxwell’s Speed Distribution Law

24.9 Thermodynamic State

24.10 Brownian Motion

24.11 Vapour

24.12 Evaporation

24.13 Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour :

Vapour Pressure

24.14 Boiling

24.15 Dew Point

24.16 Humidity

24.17 Determination of Relative Humidity

24.18 Phase Diagrams : Triple Point

24.19 Dew and Fog

25.Calorimetry

25.1 Heat as a Form of Energy

25.2 Units of Heat

25.3 Principle of Calorimetry

25.4 Specific Heat Capacity and Molar Heat Capacity

25.5 Determination of Specific Heat Capacity

in Laboratory

25.6 Specific Latent Heat of Fusion and Vaporization

25.7 Measurement of Specific Latent Heat

Fusion of Ice

25.8 Measurement of Specific Latent Heat of

Vaporization of Water

25.9 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

26.Laws of Thermodynamics

26.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

26.2 Work Done by a Gas

26.3 Heat Engines

26.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

26.5 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

26.6 Entropy

26.7 Carnot Engine

27.Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

27.1 Two Kinds of Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

27.2 Relation Between Cp and Cv for an Ideal Gas

27.3 Determination of Cp of a Gas

27.4 Determination of Cv of a Gas

27.6 Relations between p, V, T in

27.7 Work Done in an Adiabatic Process

27.8 Equipartition of Energy

28.Heat Transfer

28.1 Thermal Conduction

28.2 Series and Parallel Connection of Rods

28.3 Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of a Solid

28.4 Convection

28.6 Prevost Theory of Exchange

28.8 Kirchhoff’s Law

28.10 Stefan–Boltzmann Law

28.11 Newton’s Law of Cooling

28.12 Detection and Measurement of Radiation

29.Electric Field and Potential

29.1 What Is Electric Charge ?

29.2 Coulomb’s Law

29.3 Electric Field

29.4 Lines of Electric Force

29.5 Electric Potential Energy

29.6 Electric Potential

29.7 Electric Potential due to a Point Charge

29.8 Relation between Electric Field and Potential

29.9 Electric Dipole

29.10 Torque on an Electric Dipole Placed

in an Electric Field

29.11 Potential Energy of a Dipole Placed

in a Uniform Electric Field

29.12 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors

29.13 The Electric Field inside a Conductor

30.Gauss’s Law

30.1 Flux of an Electric Field through a Surface

30.2 Solid Angle

30.3 Gauss’s Law and Its Derivation

from Coulomb’s Law

30.4 Applications of Gauss’s Law

30.5 Spherical Charge Distributions

30.6 Earthing a Conductor

31.Capacitors

31.1 Capacitor and Capacitance

31.2 Calculation of Capacitance

31.3 Combination of Capacitors

31.4 Force between the Plates of a Capacitor

31.5 Energy Stored in a Capacitor and

Energy Density in Electric Field

31.6 Dielectrics

31.7 Parallel-plate Capacitor with a Dielectric

31.8 An Alternative Form of Gauss’s Law

31.9 Electric Field due to a Point Charge q

Placed in an Infinite Dielectric

31.10 Energy in the Electric field in a Dielectric

31.11 Corona Discharge

31.12 High-voltage Generator

32.Electric Current In Conductors

32.1 Electric Current and Current Density

32.2 Drift Speed

32.3 Ohm’s Law

32.4 Temperature Dependence of Resistivity

32.5 Battery and emf

32.6 Energy Transfer in an Electric Circuit

32.7 Kirchhoff’s Laws

32.8 Combination of Resistors in Series and Parallel

32.9 Grouping of Batteries

32.10 Wheatstone Bridge

32.11 Ammeter and Voltmeter

32.12 Stretched-wire Potentiometer

32.13 Charging and Discharging of Capacitors

32.14 Atmospheric Electricity

33.Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric

Current

33.1 Joule’s Laws of Heating

33.2 Verification of Joule’s Laws

33.3 Seebeck Effect

33.4 Peltier Effect

33.5 Thomson Effect

33.6 Explanation of Seebeck, Peltier

and Thomson Effects

33.7 Electrolysis

33.9 Voltameter or Coulombmeter

33.10 Primary and Secondary Cells

33.11 Primary Cells

33.12 Secondary Cell : Lead Accumulator

34.Magnetic Field

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Definition of Magnetic Field B

34.3 Relation between Electric and Magnetic Fields

34.4 Motion of a Charged Particle

in a Uniform Magnetic Field

34.5 Magnetic Force on a Current-carrying Wire

34.6 Torque on a Current Loop

35.Magnetic Field due to a Current

35.1 Biot–Savart Law

35.2 Magnetic Field due to Current in a Straight Wire

35.3 Force between Parallel Currents

35.4 Field due to a Circular Current

35.5 Ampere’s Law

35.6 Magnetic Field at a Point

due to a Long, Straight Current

35.7 Solenoid

35.8 Toroid

36.Permanent Magnets

36.1 Magnetic Poles and Bar Magnets

36.2 Torque on a Bar Magnet

Placed in a Magnetic Field

36.3 Magnetic Field due to a Bar Magnet

36.4 Magnetic Scalar Potential

36.5 Terrestrial Magnetism

36.6 Determination of Dip at a Place

36.7 Neutral Point

36.8 Tangent Galvanometer

36.9 Moving-coil Galvanometer

36.10 Shunt

36.11 Tangent Law of Perpendicular Fields

36.12 Deflection Magnetometer

36.13 Oscillation Magnetometer

36.14 Determination of M and BH

36.15 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism

37.Magnetic Properties of Matter

37.1 Magnetization of Materials :

Intensity of Magnetization

37.2 Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism and

Diamagnetism

37.3 Magnetic Intensity H

37.4 Magnetic Susceptibility

37.5 Permeability

37.6 Curie’s Law

37.7 Properties of Dia-, Para- and

Ferromagnetic Substances

37.8 Hysteresis

37.9 Soft Iron and Steel

38.Electromagnetic Induction

38.1 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

38.2 Lenz’s Law

38.3 The Origin of Induced emf

38.4 Eddy Current

38.5 Self-induction

38.6 Growth and Decay of Current in an LR Circuit

38.7 Energy Stored in an Inductor

38.8 Mutual Induction

38.9 Induction Coil

39.Alternating Current

39.1 Alternating Current

39.2 AC Generator or AC Dynamo

39.3 Instantaneous and rms Current

39.4 Simple AC Circuits

39.6 Vector Method to Find the Current

in an AC Circuit

39.6 More AC Circuits

39.7 Power in AC Circuits

39.8 Choke Coil

39.9 Hot-wire Instruments

38.10 DC Dynamo

39.11 DC Motor

39.12 Transformer

40.Electromagnetic Waves

40.1 Introduction

40.2 Maxwell’s Displacement Current

40.3 Continuity of Electric Current

40.4 Maxwell’s Equations and

Plane Electromagnetic Waves

40.5 Energy Density and Intensity

40.6 Momentum

40.7 Electromagnetic Spectrum and

41.Electric Current through Gases

41.1 Discharge through Gases at Low Pressure

41.2 Cathode Rays

41.3 Canal Rays or Positive Rays

41.4 Discovery and Properties of Electron

41.5 Thermionic Emission

41.6 Diode Valve

41.7 Triode Valve

41.8 Triode as an Amplifier

42.Photoelectric Effect and Wave–Particle Duality

42.1 Photon Theory of Light

42.2 Photoelectric Effect

42.3 Matter Waves

Worked Out Examples

43.Bohr’s Model and Physics of the Atom

43.1 Early Atomic Models

43.2 Hydrogen Spectra

43.3 Difficulties with Rutherford’s Model

43.4 Bohr’s Model

43.5 Limitations of Bohr’s Model

43.6 The Wave Function of an Electron

43.7 Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom

43.8 Nomenclature in Atomic Physics

43.9 Laser

44.X-rays

44.1 Production of X-rays

44.2 Continuous and Characteristic X-rays

44.3 Soft and Hard X-rays

44.4 Moseley’s Law

44.5 Bragg’s Law

44.6 Properties and Uses of X-rays

45.Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices

45.1 Introduction

45.2 Energy Bands in Solids

45.3 The Semiconductor

45.4 p-type and n-type Semiconductors

45.5 Density of Charge Carriers and Conductivity

45.6 p-n Junction

45.7 p-n Junction Diode

45.8 p-n Junction as a Rectifier

45.9 Junction Transistors

45.10 Logic Gates

46.The Nucleus

46.1 Properties of a Nucleus

46.2 Nuclear Forces

46.3 Binding Energy

46.6 Properties and Uses of Nuclear Radiation

46.7 Energy from the Nucleus

46.8 Nuclear Fission

46.9 Uranium Fission Reactor

46.10 Nuclear Fusion

46.11 Fusion in Laboratory

47.The Special Theory of Relativity

47.1 The Principle of Relativity

47.2 Are Maxwell’s Laws Independent of Frame ?

47.3 Kinematical Consequences

47.4 Dynamics at Large Velocity

47.5 Energy and Momentum

47.6 The Ultimate Speed