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# Physics 11th & 12th

Updated: Jul 24, 2020

1.Introduction to Physics

1.1 What Is Physics ?

1.2 Physics and Mathematics

1.3 Units

1.4 Definitions of Base Units

1.5 Dimension

1.6 Uses of Dimension

1.7 Order of Magnitude

1.8 The Structure of World

2.Physics and Mathematics

2.1 Vectors and Scalars

2.2 Equality of Vectors

2.4 Multiplication of a Vector by a Number

2.5 Subtraction of Vectors

2.6 Resolution of Vectors

2.7 Dot Product or Scalar Proudct of Two Vectors

2.8 Cross Product or Vector Product of Two Vectors

2.9 Differential Calculus :dy/dx as Rate Measurer

2.10 Maxima and Minima

2.11 Integral Calculus

2.12 Significant Digits

2.13 Significant Digits in Calculations

2.14 Errors in Measurement

3.Rest and Motion : Kinematics

3.1 Rest and Motion

3.2 Distance and Displacement

3.3 Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed

3.4 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity

3.5 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration

3.6 Motion in a Straight Line

3.7 Motion in a Plane

3.8 Projectile Motion

3.9 Change of Frame

4.The Forces

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Gravitational Force

4.3 Electromagnetic (EM) Force

4.4 Nuclear Forces

4.5 Weak Forces

4.6 Scope of Classical Physics

5.Newton’s Laws of Motion

5.1 First Law of Motion

5.2 Second Law of Motion

5.3 Working with Newton’s First and Second Law

5.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

5.5 Pseudo Forces

5.6 The Horse and the Cart

5.7 Inertia

6.Friction

6.1 Friction as the Component of Contact Force

6.2 Kinetic Friction

6.3 Static Friction

6.4 Laws of Friction

6.5 Understanding Friction at Atomic Level

6.6 A Laboratory Method to Measure

7.Circular Motion

7.1 Angular Variables

7.2 Unit Vectors along the Radius and the Tangent

7.3 Acceleration in Circular Motion

7.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion

7.5 Circular Turnings and Banking of Roads

7.6 Centrifugal Force

7.7 Effect of Earth’s Rotation on Apparent Weight

8.Work and Energy

8.1 Kinetic Energy

8.2 Work and Work-energy Theorem

8.3 Calculation of Work Done

8.4 Work-energy Theorem for a System of Particles

8.5 Potential Energy

8.6 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

8.7 Definition of Potential Energy and

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

8.8 Change in the Potential Energy

in a Rigid-body-motion

8.9 Gravitational Potential Energy

8.10 Potential Energy of a Compressed or

Extended Spring

8.11 Different Forms of Energy : Mass Energy

9.Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision

9.1 Centre of Mass

9.2 Centre of Mass of Continuous Bodies

9.3 Motion of the Centre of Mass

9.4 Linear Momentum and its Conservation Principle

9.5 Rocket Propulsion

9.6 Collision

9.7 Elastic Collision in One Dimension

9.8 Perfectly Inelastic Collision in One Dimension

9.9 Coefficient of Restitution

9.10 Elastic Collision in Two Dimensions

9.11 Impulse and Impulsive Force

10.Rotational Mechanics

10.1 Rotation of a Rigid Body

10.2 Kinematics

10.3 Rotational Dynamics

10.4 Torque of a Force about the Axis of Rotation

10.5 Γ = Iα

10.6 Bodies in Equilibrium

10.7 Bending of a Cyclist on a Horizontal Turn

10.8 Angular Momentum

10.9 L = Iω

10.10 Conservation of Angular Momentum

10.11 Angular Impulse

10.12 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body

10.13 Power Delivered and Work Done by a Torque

10.14 Calculation of Moment of Inertia

10.15 Two Important Theorems on Moment of Inertia

10.16 Combined Rotation and Translation

10.17 Rolling

10.18 Kinetic Energy of a Body in Combined

Rotation and Translation

10.19 Angular Momentum of a Body

in Combined Rotation and Translation

10.20 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down ?

11.Gravitation

11.1 Historical Introduction

11.2 Measurement of Gravitational Constant G

11.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

11.4 Gravitational Potential

11.5 Calculation of Gravitational Potential

11.6 Gravitational Field

11.7 Relation between Gravitational Field and Potential

11.8 Calculation of Gravitational Field

11.9 Variation in the Value of g

11.10 Planets and Satellites

11.11 Kepler’s Laws

11.12 Weightlessness in a Satellite

11.13 Escape Velocity

11.14 Gravitational Binding Energy

11.15 Black Holes 218

11.16 Inertial and Gravitational Mass

11.17 Possible Changes in the Law of Gravitation

12.Simple Harmonic Motion

12.1 Simple Harmonic Motion

12.2 Qualitative Nature of Simple Harmonic Motion

12.3 Equation of Motion of a Simple Harmonic Motion

12.4 Terms Associated with Simple Harmonic Motion

12.5 Simple Harmonic Motion as a

Projection of Circular Motion

12.6 Energy Conservation in Simple Harmonic Motion

12.7 Angular Simple Harmonic Motion

12.8 Simple Pendulum

12.9 Physical Pendulum

12.10 Torsional Pendulum

12.11 Composition of Two Simple Harmonic Motions

12.12 Damped Harmonic Motion

12.13 Forced Oscillation and Resonance

13.Fluid Mechanics

13.1 Fluids

13.2 Pressure in a Fluid

13.3 Pascal’s Law

13.4 Atmospheric Pressure and Barometer

13.5 Archimedes’ Principle

13.6 Pressure Difference and Buoyant

Force in Accelerating Fluids

13.7 Flow of Fluids

13.9 Irrotational Flow of an

Incompressible and Nonviscous Fluid

13.10 Equation of Continuity

13.11 Bernoulli’s Equation

13.12 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

14.Some Mechanical Properties of Matter

14.1 Molecular Structure of a Material

14.2 Elasticity

14.3 Stress

14.4 Strain

14.5 Hooke’s Law and the Modulii of Elasticity

14.6 Relation between Longitudinal Stress and Strain

14.7 Elastic Potential Energy of a Strained Body

14.8 Determination of Young’s Modulus in Laboratory

14.9 Surface Tension

14.10 Surface Energy

14.11 Excess Pressure Inside a Drop

14.12 Excess Pressure in a Soap Bubble

14.13 Contact Angle

14.14 Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube

14.15 Viscosity

14.16 Flow through a Narrow Tube : Poiseuille’s

Equation

14.17 Stokes’ Law

14.18 Terminal Velocity

14.19 Measuring Coefficient of Viscosity

by Stokes’ Method

14.20 Critical Velocity and Reynolds Number

15.Wave Motion and Waves on a String

15.1 Wave Motion

15.2 Wave Pulse on a String

15.3 Sine Wave Travelling on a String

15.4 Velocity of a Wave on a String

15.5 Power Transmitted along the String

by a Sine Wave

15.6 Interference and the Principle of Superposition

15.7 Interference of Waves Going in Same Direction

15.8 Reflection and Transmission of Waves

15.9 Standing Waves

15.10 Standing Waves on a String Fixed

at Both Ends (Qualitative Discussion)

15.11 Analytic Treatment of Vibration

of a String Fixed at Both Ends

15.12 Vibration of a String Fixed at One End

15.13 Laws of Transverse Vibrations of a

String : Sonometer

15.14 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

15.15 Polarization of Waves

16.Sound Waves

16.1 The Nature and Propagation of Sound Waves

16.2 Displacement Wave and Pressure Wave

16.3 Speed of a Sound Wave in a Material Medium

16.4 Speed of Sound in a Gas : Newton’s

Formula and Laplace’s Correction

16.5 Effect of Pressure, Temperature and

Humidity on the Speed of Sound in Air

16.6 Intensity of Sound Waves

16.7 Appearance of Sound to Human Ear

16.8 Interference of Sound Waves

16.9 Standing Longitudinal Waves

and Vibrations of Air Columns

16.10 Determination of Speed of Sound in Air

16.11 Beats

16.12 Diffraction

16.13 Doppler Effect

16.14 Sonic Booms

16.15 Musical Scale

16.16 Acoustics of Buildings

17.Light Waves

17.1 Waves or Particles

17.2 The Nature of Light Waves

17.3 Huygens’ Principle

17.4 Young’s Double Hole Experiment

17.5 Young’s Double Slit Experiment

17.6 Optical Path

17.7 Interference from Thin Films

17.8 Fresnel’s Biprism

17.9 Coherent and Incoherent Sources

17.10 Diffraction of Light

17.11 Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Single Slit

17.12 Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Circular Aperture

17.13 Fresnel Diffraction at a Straight Edge

17.14 Limit of Resolution

17.15 Scattering of Light

17.16 Polarization of Light

18.Geometrical Optics

18.1 Reflection at Smooth Surfaces

18.2 Spherical Mirrors

18.3 Relation Between u, v and R for Spherical Mirrors

18.4 Extended Objects and Magnification

18.5 Refraction at Plane Surfaces

18.6 Critical Angle

18.7 Optical Fibre

18.8 Prism

18.9 Refraction at Spherical Surfaces

18.10 Extended Objects : Lateral Magnification

18.11 Refraction through Thin Lenses

18.12 Lens Maker’s Formula and Lens Formula

18.13 Extended Objects : Lateral Magnification

18.14 Power of a Lens

18.15 Thin Lenses in Contact

18.16 Two Thin Lenses Separated By a Distance

18.17 Defects of Images

19.Optical Instruments

19.1 The Eye

19.2 The Apparent Size

19.3 Simple Microscope

19.4 Compound Microscope

19.5 Telescopes

19.6 Resolving Power of a Microscope and a Telescope

19.7 Defects of Vision

20.Dispersion and Spectra

20.1 Dispersion

20.2 Dispersive Power

20.3 Dispersion without Average Deviation

and Average Deviation without Dispersion

20.4 Spectrum

20.5 Kinds of Spectra

20.6 Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectrum

20.7 Spectrometer

20.8 Rainbow

21.Speed of Light

21.1 Historical Introduction

21.2 Fizeau Method

21.3 Foucault Method

21.4 Michelson Method

22.Photometry

22.3 Luminous Flux : Relative Luminosity

22.4 Luminous Efficiency

22.5 Luminous Intensity or Illuminating Power

22.6 Illuminance

22.7 Inverse Square Law

22.8 Lambert’s Cosine Law

22.9 Photometers

23.Heat and Temperature

23.1 Hot and Cold Bodies

23.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

23.3 Defining Scale of Temperature : Mercury

and Resistance Thermometers

23.4 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

23.5 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale

23.6 Celsius Temperature Scale

23.7 Ideal Gas Equation

23.8 Callender’s Compensated Constant

Pressure Thermometer

23.10 Thermal Expansion

24.Kinetic Theory of Gases

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases

24.3 Calculation of the Pressure of an Ideal Gas

24.4 rms Speed

24.5 Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature

24.6 Deductions from Kinetic Theory

24.7 Ideal Gas Equation

24.8 Maxwell’s Speed Distribution Law

24.9 Thermodynamic State

24.10 Brownian Motion