To assess the quality of concrete by ultrasonic pulse velocity
method as per IS: 13311 (Part 1) - 1992.
The method consists of measuring the time of travel of an
ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete being tested.
Comparatively higher velocity is obtained when concrete quality
is good in terms of density, uniformity, homogeneity etc.
ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY METER
i) Preparing for use: Before switching on the 'V' meter, the
transducers should be connected to the sockets marked
"TRAN" and " REC".
The 'V' meter may be operated with either:
a) the internal battery,
b) an external battery or
c) the A.C line.
ii) Set reference: A reference bar is provided to check the
instrument zero. The pulse time for the bar is engraved on it.
Apply a smear of grease to the transducer faces before
placing it on the opposite ends of the bar. Adjust the 'SET
REF' control until the reference bar transit time is obtained
on the instrument read-out.
iii) Range selection: For maximum accuracy, it is
recommended that the 0.1 microsecond range be selected
for path length upto 400mm.
iv) Pulse velocity: Having determined the most suitable test
points on the material to be tested, make careful
measurement of the path length ‘L’. Apply couplant to the
surfaces of the transducers and press it hard onto the
surface of the material. Do not move the transducers while a
reading is being taken, as this can generate noise signals
and errors in measurements. Continue holding the
transducers onto the surface of the material until a
consistent reading appears on the display, which is the time
in microsecond for the ultrasonic pulse to travel the distance
The mean value of the display readings should be taken
when the units digit hunts between two values.
Pulse velocity = Path length/Travel time
v) Separation of transducer leads: It is advisable to prevent the
two transducer leads from coming into close contact with
each other when the transit time measurements are being
taken. If this is not done, the receiver lead might pick-up
unwanted signals from the transmitter lead and this would
result in an incorrect display of the transit time.
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
The quality of concrete in terms of uniformity, incidence or
absence of internal flaws, cracks and segregation, etc.,
indicative of the level of workmanship employed, can thus be
assessed using the guidelines given below, which have been
evolved for characterising the quality of concrete in structures in
terms of the ultrasonic pulse velocity