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Steel Structure

Structural Fasteners


Gross dia rivet or dia of hole

Unwins formula

Bolted joints

Black bolts

Precison and semiPresison bolts

Type of Reveted and volted joints

Lap joint

Butt joint

Nominal diameter

Effective diameter or gross diameter

Net Area


Edge distance

Proof load

Slip factor


Failure of Riveted /Bolted joints

By tearing Plate between rivets

Strength of rivet in single shear

Strength of rivet in double shear

Failure due to bearing or crushing of rivet or plates

Efficiency of joints

Maximum permissable stress in Rivet and bolts

Permissable Stress

Maximum permisable deflections

Arrangement of Revets

Eccentric Connections

Minimum size of weld

Slot weld

Slide fillet weld

Welded Connection

Permissable Stresses

Butt welded loaded Eccentrically

Fillet-Welded Joint Loaded Eccentrically

Load not Laying in plane of weld

Tension Member


Net Sectiontional Area

For plate

Single Angle connected by one leg only

Permissabe Stress in Design

Lug Angle

Compression member

Strength of an axially Loaded compression member

Effective length

Angle Strut

Built up Compression member

Design compression member

tracking Rivet

Design compression members



Slab base

Design for bendig

Effective length Compression flange

Built up Beams

Gantry Girders

Beam Column

Plate Girders

Design of web

Web Stiffeners

Permissable Bending Stress

Curtailment flange plates

Web Stiffeners

Load bearing Stiffners

Industrial roofs

Purlins and grits

Plastic Analysis

Load Factor

Saving in material

Plaasic section moodulus

Shape Factor (α)

Shape factor of Different Shapes

Reserve Strength (Ψ)

Length of Plastic hinge (Lp)

Collapse Loads

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